The Neurological Institute of New York was founded in 1909 as the first hospital and research center in the Western Hemisphere devoted solely to neurological disorders. It was originally located at 149-151 East 67th Street. In 1925, it affiliated with Presbyterian Hospital and in 1929 occupied its own building on the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center campus in Manhattan’s Washington Heights neighborhood.
In April 1933 the Neurological Institute Board of Directors was merged into the Board of Managers of Presbyterian Hospital. However, the Institute remained a separate corporation until its complete merger with Presbyterian on Dec. 31, 1943. The name "Neurological Institute" is still used to refer to the department of neurology of the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons.